What Are the Requirements for Die Steel to Meet Working Conditions?

With the development of industry, many production technologies have become simple and rapid. Die steel is the steel used to make dies such as cold punching dies, hot forging dies, and die casting dies.

Dies are the main processing tools for manufacturing parts in industrial sectors such as machinery manufacturing, radio instruments, motors, and electrical engineering. The quality of the die directly affects the quality of the press processing technology, the accuracy of the product, the output and the production cost, and the quality and service life of the die is mainly affected by the die material and heat treatment in addition to reasonable structural design and machining accuracy. Next, we will introduce to you what the requirements on mould steel to meet working conditions are.

1. Wear resistance of die steel

When the blank is plastically deformed in the die cavity, it both flows and slides along the surface of the cavity, causing severe friction between the surface of the cavity and the blank, resulting in the failure of the die due to wear. Therefore, the wear resistance of the material is one of the most basic and important properties of the die.

Hardness is the main factor affecting wear resistance. In general, the higher the hardness of the die parts, the smaller the amount of wear and the better the wear resistance. In addition, wear resistance is also related to the type, quantity, shape, size, and distribution of carbides in the material.

2. Strength and toughness of die steel

Most of the working conditions of the die are very bad, and some often bear a large impact load, which leads to brittle fracture. To prevent sudden brittle fracture of die parts during operation, the die must have high strength and toughness.

The toughness of the die mainly depends on the carbon content, grain size, and organizational state of the material.

3. Fatigue fracture properties of die steel

During the working process of the die, fatigue fracture is often caused by the long-term action of cyclic stress. Its forms include fatigue fracture caused by multiple impacts of small energy, tensile fatigue fracture, contact fatigue fracture, and bending fatigue fracture.

The fatigue fracture performance of the die mainly depends on its strength, toughness, hardness, and the content of inclusions in the material.

4. High-temperature performance of die steel

When the working temperature of the die is high, the hardness and strength will decrease, resulting in early wear of the die or plastic deformation and failure. The die material should have high anti-tempering stability, to ensure that the die has high hardness and strength at working temperature.

5. Hot and cold fatigue resistance of die steel

Some dies are in a state of repeated heating and cooling during the working process, which causes the surface of the cavity to be subjected to tension, pressure, and stress, causing surface cracking and peeling, increasing friction, hindering plastic deformation, and reducing dimensional accuracy, resulting in die failure. Hot and cold fatigue is one of the main forms of failure of hot work die, but this type of die has high resistance to cold and heat fatigue.

6. Corrosion resistance of die steel

When some dies such as plastic dies are working, due to the presence of chlorine, fluorine, and other elements in the plastic, strong corrosive gases such as HCI and hf are decomposed after heating, which erodes the surface of the die cavity, increases its surface roughness, and aggravates wear failure.

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